Interface of Leadership and Teams Lab (ILT)

Faculty Director
Address(es)
Williams Hall
Blacksburg, VA, 24061
EMail(s)

About Us

ilt lab

The Interface of Leadership and Teams (ILT) lab is dedicated to conducting scholarly work relating to leadership and team issues facing today’s organizations from a scientist-practitioner perspective.  Specifically, we are interested in the perception and characteristics of leaders and followers, leadership and gender, leader-follower relationships, the assessment of leadership phenomena and the effectiveness of interdisciplinary teams.

 Lab Mission 

The ILT lab focuses on how leadership and leader-follower relationships develop. What are the cognitive and relational processes involved in coming to see oneself, and being seen by others, as a leader or a follower?

Here are some examples of our current research projects:

  • How does similarity in expectations between leaders and followers impact their cooperation on a joint task? 
  • How does a change in leader or a change in organizational climate impact expectations of followers?
  • How does identity and self-perception impact whether women seek out leadership roles?
  • How do self-perception and cognitive expectations influence judgments about leadership?
  • What are the difference in networks of leadership traits for males and females?

 

Congratulations to our lab's newest Ph.D. -- YASHNA SHAH!!

congrats yashna

Check out our new lab logos coming soon along with our new lab webpage! Logos created by graphic designer Keith Action (2019)

ilt logo 1  ilt logo 2

People

Director:

Laboratory Coordinator:

      Graduate Students:

             Undergraduate Research Assistants:

            • Niki Pike
            • Lauren Thompson
            • Julian Sauvage
            • Maggie North
            • George Pantovic

            Current Research Projects

            Leadership Perceptions

            How do we identify an individual as a leader or a follower?  Theory and research has established that individuals have preconceived notions – implicit theories – about which traits and behaviors typically are associated with leader and follower categories.  We study the content and structure of implicit theories and their importance for the leadership process.

            Leadership Emergence

            We take a process-oriented perspective of examining how one or more individuals are recognized as leaders in groups.  By conceptualizing leadership as a fundamentally dyadic phenomenon emerging over time, we investigate the interplay of individual actors, dyads, team, network, context and time in the co-production of leadership.  

            Team Dynamics

            We use a multilevel, longitudinal, pattern-oriented approach to study team states, such as cohesion. We focus on projects that study newly formed teams over time, with a specific emphasis on the role that individual differences play in this dynamic process.

            Gender & Leadership

            We investigate the impact of gender on leadership perceptions. as well as ways to enhance women’s leadership outcomes when faced with “Think Leader, Think Male” stereotypes. Such stereotypes undermine women’s beliefs in their own leadership abilities and may prevent them from seeking out leadership opportunities. The ILT lab investigates processes of countering these stereotypes and methods of encouraging women to engage in leadership activities. For instance, providing female role models is one way to counter these leader stereotypes and encourage women to take up leadership role.

            Leadership Behaviors

            We investigate how leadership processes unfold over time by taking a functional behavior perspective for leader and follower interactions.  By examining the claiming and granting of leadership, we are able to investigate shared leadership and predict if a person is likely to perceive another as a leader or follower based on his/her implicit theories and actual observed behaviors.

            Leader Development

            We investigate the relationship between leader development and stress.  Specifically, we examine how situational factors and individual differences related to leadership skills and capacities interact to influence stress perceptions and physiological reactivity.

            Person-Oriented

            An emerging trend has been to consider how leadership is experienced, as a whole, from the perspective of individual leaders and/or followers.  The person-oriented approach examines combinations, patterns, or profiles of attributes – within individuals – and the implications for leadership process.  

            Leadership & Measurement

            As the field of leadership research changes over time, the measurement of leadership constructs and theories also adapt. We are working to continually improve how leadership perceptions and other processes are measured to keep up with the dynamic nature of the leadership field. Specifically, we are adapting leadership scales to more precisely align with conceptual definitions of leadership and followership processes.  .

            Investigating Interdisciplinarity

            We couple the field of I/O Psychology with the study of interdisciplinarity. Relevant projects focus on predictors and outcomes associated with employing interdisciplinary and diverse individuals, teams, and networks within (educational) organizations.

            Select Publications and Presentations

            • Acton, B. P., Foti, R. J., Lord, R. G., & Gladfelter, J. G. (In Press). Putting emergence back in leadership emergence: A dynamic, multilevel process-oriented framework. The Leadership Quarterly.

            • Foti, R. J., Hansbrough, T. K., Epitropaki, O., & Coyle, P. T. (2017). Special issue: Dynamic viewpoints on Implicit Leadership and Followership Theories. The Leadership Quarterly, 28, 261-267.

            • Foti, R. F., & McCusker, M. (2017). Person-Oriented Approaches to Leadership: A Roadmap Forward. In B. Schyns, R. Hall & P. Neves (Eds.), Handbook of Methods in Leadership Research. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

            • Foti, R. F., & Boyd, K. B. (2016). Leadership, Followership, and AC4P. In E.S. Geller (Ed.). Applied Psychology: Actively Caring for People. New York: Cambridge University Press.

            • Coyle, P. T. & Foti, R. J. (2015). If you’re not with me, you’re…? The role of congruence and cooperation in leader-follower relationships. The Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies. 22,161-174

            • Bray, B. C., Foti, R. J. Thompson, N. J., & Wills, S. F. (2014). Disentangling the effects of self leader perceptions and ideal leader prototypes on leader effectiveness using loglinear modeling with latent variables. Human Performance, 27, 393-415.

            • Foti, R. J., Allgood, S. F., & Thompson, N. J. (2013). Trait theory of leadership. In E. Kessler, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Management Theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

            • Hayes, H. & Foti, R. J. (2013). The impact of shared leadership on teamwork mental models and performance in self-directed teams. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 16, 46-57.

            • Foti, R. J., Bray, B. C., Thompson, N. J., & Allgood, S. J. (2012). Know thy self, know thy leader: Contributions of a pattern-oriented approach to examining leader perceptions. The Leadership Quarterly, 23, 702-717.

            • Williams, F., & Foti, R.J. (2011). Formally developing creative leadership as a driver of organizational innovation. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 13, 279-296.

            • Foti, R. J., Thompson, N. J., & Allgood, S. F. (2011). The pattern oriented approach: A framework for the experience of work. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 4, 122-125.

            • O'Shea, P. G., Foti, R. J., Hauenstein, N. M. A., & Bycio, P. (2009). Are the best leaders both transformational and transformational? A pattern-oriented analysis. Journal of Leadership, 5, 237-259.

            • Rueb, J. D., Erskine, H. J., & Foti, R. J. (2008). Intelligence, dominance, masculinity, and self-monitoring: Predicting leadership. Military Psychology, 20, 237-247.

            • Foti, R. J., Knee, R., & Backert, R. G. (2008). Multi-level Implications of Framing Leadership Perceptions as a Dynamic Process. Leadership Quarterly, 19, 178-194.

            • Gershenoff, A. & Foti, R. J. (2008). Leader emergence and gender roles in all female groups: A contextual examination. In J. Pierce & J. Newstrom (Eds.) Leaders and the Leadership Process (pp. 100-108). Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.



            • Boyd (nee Snead), K., Foti, R. J., & Shah, Y. (April, 2016). Measuring the effects of contextual constraints on perceptions of leadership. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Anaheim, CA

            • Foti, R. J., Thompson, N. J. (April, 2016). Judgments of leadership: Profiles of implicit theories and personality. In W. Macey (Chair), Current perspectives on Person-Centered Leadership Research. Symposium presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Anaheim, C

            • McCusker, M. E., & Foti, R. J. (April, 2016). A dyadic approach to leadership emergence. In M. Braun (Chair), Who Follows Whom? Predicting the Emergence of Informal Leader-Follower Networks. Symposium presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Anaheim, CA

            • Roediger, M., Coyle, P., *Shah, Y., *Poli, R. A., *Burns, D., & Foti, R. J. (April, 2016). Using correspondence analysis to measure implicit leader and follower theories. In P. Coyle & R. J. Foti (Co-chairs), Measuring Leadership and Followership: Clarifying constructs and Items. Symposium presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Anaheim, CA

            • Shah, Y., & Foti, R. J. (April, 2016). Impact of role model similarity on women’s leadership outcomes. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Anaheim, CA

            • Shah, Y., Coyle, P., & Foti, R. J. (April, 2016). Reevaluation the measurement of follower characteristics using item response theory. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Anaheim, CA

            • Coyle, P. T. & Foti, R. J. (August, 2015). Matching patterns of implicit followership theories to followership context. In D. Zoogah (Chair), Antecedents, Mediators, and Moderators of Strategic Followership. Symposium conducted at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management conference, Vancouver, BC​

            • Foti, R. J. (August, 2015). Where should the measurement of ILTs go from here? In B. Schyns (Chair), Implicit leadership theories: Contents, stability and outcomes. Symposium presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management conference, Vancouver, BC

            • Foti, R. J., Coyle, P. T. (August, 2015). Patterns of leader and follower perceptions: How are they related? In T. Dennerlein, & B. Schyns (Chairs), Implicit followership theories and people’s dispositions as drivers of leadership effectiveness. Symposium presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management conference, Vancouver, BC

            • Foti, R. J., & Wills, S. F. (August, 2015). Perceptions of female emergent leaders: Similarities and differences. In T. Dennerlein, E. Kleinlogel, & A. Ding (Chairs), Understanding perceptions of female and male leaders. Symposium presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management conference, Vancouver, BC

            • Snead, K., Coyle, P. T., Foti, R. J., & *Taylor, M. (April, 2015). Differentiating perceptions of leaders and followers using item response theory. Paper presented at the 30th Society for Industrial/Organizational Psychology conference, Philadelphia, PA

            • Coyle, P.T., Foti, R. J., Snead, K., Shah, Y., & Roediger, M. (April, 2015). Examining patterns of followership ratings using latent class analysis. Paper presented at the 30th Society for Industrial/Organizational Psychology conference, Philadelphia, PA

            • Allgood Will, S. F., & Foti, R.J. (May, 2014). Ideal leaders and gender: A person-centered approach. Paper presented at the 29th Society for Industrial/Organizational Psychology conference, Honolulu, HI

            • Coyle, P. T., *Snead, K. B., Foti, R. J., Shah, Y., Thompson, N. J. & Massara, J. (May, 2014). Measuring implicit followership theories with cue validity. Paper presented atthe 29th Society for Industrial/Organizational Psychology conference, Honolulu, HI

            • Coyle, P. T & Foti, R. J. (May, 2014). Examining Prototypes, Cooperation and Congruence inExchange Relationships. In R. Foti & B. Schyns (Co-Chairs), Implicit leadership theories (3): Influences on perceiving leaders. Symposium presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Honolulu, HI

            • Foti, R. J.,Coyle, P. T. & Bray, B. C. (May, 2014). Differentiating perceptions of leaders and followers using ILTs and IFTs. Paper presented at the 29th Society for Industrial/Organizational Psychology conference, Honolulu, HI

            • Coyle, P., Foti, R., Snead, K., & Thompson, N. (2013, April). A Pattern oriented approach to measuring IFT's. Poster presented at the SIOP conference, Houston.

            • Snead, K., Coyle, P., Diana, R., & Foti, R. (2013, April). Semantic Priming as a Measure of Implicit Leadership Theories. Symposia presentation presented at the SIOP conference, Houston.

            • Coyle, P., Thompson, N., Foti, R., Snead, K., Moshier, S., & Collura, M. (2012, April). A Measure of Implicit Followership Theories: an Integrative Followership Approach. Poster presentation presented at the SIOP conference, San Diego.

            • Snead, K., Coyle, P., Bowden, E., & Vinson, M. (2011, August). Impact of Gossip on Interpersonal Trust and Commitment: A protocol for monitoring and influencing interpersonal communication. Organized paper symposium presented at the American Psychological Association Conference, Washington DC

            • Schmitt, E., Snead, K., & Coyle, P. (2011, May). Impact of Gossip on Empathy and Trust: Trials and Tribulations of Attempts to Influence Conversation. Poster presentation presented at the APS Conference, Washington DC.